This first difference is insufficient, however, because other factors may have affected the treatment group at the same time. Better understanding of all the elements of the reforms is something we owe to the city, its children, and everyone who suffered and perished in this terrible tragedy.
To accelerate the path to the health and care we need, IHI created the Triple Aim, a framework for optimizing health system performance by simultaneously focusing on the health of a population, the experience of care for individuals within that population, and the per capita cost of providing that care.
There were some signs of improvement in student outcomes just before the storm, but, as we will see, these were relatively modest compared with what came next.
We study only those students who returned to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Other research on these students by Dartmouth economist Bruce Sacerdote suggests that New Orleans evacuees experienced larger improvements in school quality than evacuees from other districts.
As further evidence, we considered descriptive information on nontest outcomes. Prior research suggests that such intensive test-based accountability can lead to behaviors, such as teaching to the test, that increase scores without improvements in underlying learning or through reduced learning in nontested subjects.
Both before and after the reforms, at least 80 percent of New Orleans students were minority or eligible for FRL. Given the large improvements in average outcomes in a district that is almost entirely low-income and minority, and the mixed evidence on other equity indicators, it would be hard to say the outcomes from the New Orleans reforms are inequitable relative to what came before them.
We also carried out the difference-in-differences analysis in these demographic measures to understand the changes in New Orleans relative to the matched comparison group of hurricane-affected districts, and then simulated the effect of changes in family background characteristics on test scores using data from the federal Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.
Regardless, there is wide agreement that the reforms did not come cheap. Gradually, the RSD turned schools over to charter operators, and the teacher workforce shifted toward alternatively prepared teachers from Teach for America and other programs. But the students are no longer the same. Some of the reform effect may be driven by parental choice and competition.
It is difficult to isolate trauma and interim school effects, but we can estimate the combination of the two. Dozens of districts around the country are citing the New Orleans experience to justify their own reforms. Your members can have convenient access to affordable prescriptions and over-the-counter medications with our on-site pharmacy.
For example, we have replaced traditional waiting rooms with private care suites. There was nowhere to go but up. There is a clear pattern across these methods. Some schools specialize in math and science, others in the arts.
A few states and districts nationally have experimented with one or two of these reforms; many states have increased the number of charter schools, for example. Their circumstances may lead them to focus more on practical considerations such as distance to school and extended hours to avoid extra child-care costs.Cigna's 4th annual Corporate Responsibility Report shares the specific initiatives through which we apply Cigna's global health services expertise, resources and innovative thinking to help solve complex societal challenges.
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The purpose of the NGSP is to standardize Hemoglobin A1c test results to those of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) which established the direct relationships between HbA1c levels and outcome risks in patients with diabetes.
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment T ECHNICAL R EPORT October.
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